TREE OF LIFE

THC and CBD Explained

Cannabidiol (CBD) oil is a product that’s derived from cannabis. It’s a type of cannabinoid, which are the chemicals naturally found in marijuana plants. Even though it comes from marijuana plants, CBD doesn’t create a “high” effect or any form of intoxication — that’s caused by another cannabinoid, known as THC.

The primary effects…

…of cannabis are caused by the chemical compounds in the plant, including cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is only one of about 500 different cannabinoids.

Cannabis has various psychological and physiological effects on the human body.

CBD shares a precursor with THC and is the main cannabinoid in CBD-dominant Cannabis strains. CBD has been shown to play a role in preventing the short-term memory loss associated with THC.

Any psychoactive marijuana, regardless of its CBD content, is derived from the flower (or bud) of the genus cannabis.

Non-psychoactive hemp (also commonly-termed industrial hemp), regardless of its CBD content, is any part of the genus cannabis plant, whether growing or not, containing a-9 tetrahydrocannabinol concentration of no more than three-tenths of one percent (0.3%) on a dry weight basis.

Certain standards are required for the legal growth and production of hemp. The Colorado Industrial Hemp Program registers growers of industrial hemp and samples crops to verify that the THC concentration does not exceed 0.3% on dry weight basis.

Acute effects…

…while under the influence can include both euphoria and anxiety.

Cannabidiol (CBD), another cannabinoid found in cannabis in varying amounts, has been shown to alleviate the adverse effects of THC that some consumers experience. With very high doses, THC can induce auditory and visual hallucinations.

The classical cannabinoids

are concentrated in a viscous resin produced in structures known as glandular trichomes.

At least 113 different cannabinoids have been isolated from the Cannabis plant To the right, the main classes of cannabinoids from Cannabis are shown.

The best studied cannabinoids include tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) Types.

All classes derive from cannabigerol-type compounds and differ mainly in the way this precursor is cyclized. The classical cannabinoids are derived from their respective 2-carboxylic acids (2-COOH) by decarboxylation (catalyzed by heat, light, or alkaline conditions).

The cannabinoid receptor is a typical member of the largest known family of receptors called a G protein-coupled receptor. A signature of this type of receptor is the distinct pattern of how the receptor molecule spans the cell membrane seven times. The location of cannabinoid receptors exists on the cell membrane, and both outside (extracellularly) and inside (intracellularly) the cell membrane.

CB1 receptors, the bigger of the two, are extraordinarily abundant in the brain: 10 times more plentiful than -opioid receptors, the receptors responsible for the effects of morphine.

CB2 receptors are structurally different (the sequence similarity between the two subtypes of receptors is 44%), found only on cells of the immune system, and seems to function similarly to its CB1 counterpart.

CB2 receptors are most commonly prevalent on B-cells, natural killer cells, and monocytes, but can also be found on polymorphonuclear neutrophil cells, T8 cells, and T4 cells. In the tonsils the CB2 receptors appear to be restricted to B-lymphocyte-enriched areas.

In 1992, in Raphael Mechoulam’s lab,… …the first such compound was identified as arachidonoyl ethanolamine and named anandamide, a name derived from the Sanskrit word for bliss and -amide. Anandamide is derived from arachidonic acid.

It has a pharmacology similar to THC, although its chemical structure is different. Anandamide binds to the central (CB1) and, to a lesser extent, peripheral (CB2) cannabinoid receptors, where it acts as a partial agonist. Anandamide is about as potent as THC at the CB1 receptor.

Anandamide is found in nearly all tissues in a wide range of animals. Anandamide has also been found in plants, including small amounts in chocolate.